PhantomReference and Finalization

Soft, Weak and PhantomReference

SoftReferences are typically used for implementing memory caching. The JVM should try to keep softly referenced objects in memory as long as possible, and when memory is low clear the oldest soft references first. According to the JavaDoc, there are no guarantees though. 

WeakReferences is the reference type I use most frequently. It's typically used when you want weak listeners or if you want to connect additional information to an object (using WeakHashMap for example). Very useful stuff when you want to reduce class coupling. 
 

Phantom references can be used to perform pre-garbage collection actions such as freeing resources. Instead, people usually use the finalize() method for this which is not a good idea. Finalizers have a horrible impact on the performance of the garbage collector and can break data integrity of your application if you're not very careful since the "finalizer" is invoked in a random thread, at a random time. 

In the constructor of a phantom reference, you specify a ReferenceQueue where the phantom references are enqueued once the referenced objects becomes "phantom reachable". Phantom reachable means unreachable other than through the phantom reference. The initially confusing thing is that although the phantom reference continues to hold the referenced object in a private field (unlike soft or weak references), its getReference() method always returns null. This is so that you cannot make the object strongly reachable again. 

From time to time, you can poll the ReferenceQueue and check if there are any new PhantomReferences whose referenced objects have become phantom reachable. In order to be able to to anything useful, one can for example derive a class from java.lang.ref.PhantomReference that references resources that should be freed before garbage collection. The referenced object is only garbage collected once the phantom reference becomes unreachable itself. 
 

The Subtleties of PhantomReference and finalization 

A common misconception regarding PhantomReference is that it is designed to "fix" the dead object resurrection problem that finalizers have. For example, what we says about phantom references:

PhantomReferences avoid a fundamental problem with finalization: finalize() methods can "resurrect" objects by creating new strong references to them. So what, you say? Well, the problem is that an object which overrides finalize() must now be determined to be garbage in at least two separate garbage collection cycles in order to be collected.

Well, yeah. Except for the fact that even PhantomReference can let their referred objects be resurrected. This is even how it can be done:

Reference ref = referenceQueue.remove();//ref is our PhantomReference instanceField f = Reference.class.getDeclaredField("referent");f.setAccessible(true);System.out.println("I see dead objects! --> " + f.get(ref));//This is obviously a very bad practice.
Yes, unreachable objects are really referenced from the Reference#referent field, seemingly strongly, but no, the garbage collector makes an exception for that particular field. This fact also contradicts what the previous declares:

PhantomReferences are enqueued only when the object is physically removed from memory.

Which is not true, as we just saw. Javadocs also say:

Phantom references are most often used for scheduling pre-mortem cleanup

So if PhantomReference was not meant to fix the resurrection problem (which indeed is serious, as pointedly proven by Lazarus, Jesus and many others), what is it useful for?

The main advantage of using a PhantomReference over finalize() is that finalize() is called by a garbage-collector thread, meaning it introduces concurrency even in a single-threaded program, with all the potential issues (like correctly synchronizing shared state). With a PhantomReference, you choose the thread that dequeues references from your queue (in a single-threaded program, that thread could periodically do this job).
 

What about using WeakReference? 

It seems to also fit the bill for pre-mortem clean-up. The difference lies in when exactly the reference is enqueued. A PhantomReference is enqueued after finalization of the object. A WeakReference is enqueued before. This doesn't matter for objects with no non-trivial finalize() method.

And how exactly are you supposed to clean-up a dead object you don't even know? 

(PhantomReference's get() method always returns null). Well, you should store as much state as needed to perform the clean-up. If cleaning up an object means nulling an element of a global array, then you have to keep track of the element index, for example. This can be easily done by extending the PhantomReference and adding the fields you want, and then create PhantomReference instances from that subclass.

Now lets talk about even darker corners than these.

Lets say that it is even darker relating finalization than this. If you are about to write a clean-up hook for an object (by finalize() or with a [Weak|Phantom]Reference), and you happen to call a method on it while there is it is strongly-referenced only from the thread stack (i.e. a local variable), and you happen to invoke a method to that object, bad things can happen.

This is very unfortunate. For performance reasons, the VM is permitted if it can to reuse the register that holds the object reference, thus making the object unreachable. So, during the method invocation on an object, finalization might be executed concurrently, leading to unpredictable results (finalize() could modify state that is needed by the other method execution). This should be extremely rare though. Currently, this can be fixed by:

Object method() { //do work here synchronized (this) { } return result;}

public void finalize() {synchronized (this) { }//do work here}
This will only affect you if you have an object referenced only from the thread stack and either one holds:

- it has a non-trivial finalize() method
- there is a [Weak|Soft|PhantomReference] to it, enlisted to a ReferenceQueue, and there is a different thread that dequeues references from ReferenceQueue

To conclude, the safest clean-up for objects is to have a ReferenceQueue and a PhantomReference, and you use the same thread that uses the object to do the clean-up. (If this the clean-up is performed from another thread, synchronization will probably be needed, and the above issue might be relevant).

See also
Reverse A Singly Linked List

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