What are the difference between and constraints and triggers?
Constraints are used to maintain the integrity and atomicity of database
.in other words it can be said they are used to prevent invalid data entry.
The main 5 constraints are NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY, FOREIGN KEY, UNIQUE KEY
Another most imp. Diff. is that trigger effected only those row after which trigger applied but constraint effected all row of table.
What is normalization? What is the advantage of normalization (briefly)?
1. The process of separating data into distinct, unique sets is called normalization. This is implemented to improve the performance of the RDBMS, such as reduces redundancy of data and data inconsistency.
2. Normalization is the process of removing redundant data from your tables in order to improve storage efficiency, data integrity and scalability.
3. Database normalization is a series of steps followed to obtain a database design that allows for consistent storage and efficient access of data in a relational database. These steps reduce data redundancy and the risk of data becoming inconsistent.
4. Normalization is the process used to reduce the unnecessary repetition of data i.e., redundant data. It is performed on the data, which is redundant and makes the data in a normalized format. It is of step-by-step process IstNotmal, FormIIndNormal, formIIIrdNormal, formIVthNormal form or Boyce odd Normal form By performing this we will get the data in the Normalized formati.,e from DBMS to RDBMS.
How the logs are escalated?
There are different types are logs which are logged by Oracle Database Engine. A DBA has to look in for alter log which exist background dump dust. The seviourity of the problem are analysed and escalated based on the information provided by the alter log.
What is structure of Database?
1. Oracle database usually contains one database and a single instance.
But, Oracle 9i, 10g RAC (Real Application Clusters) can have multiple instances
to interact with a single database for high availability.
2. Physical Structure of Database:
What is the difference between primary key, unique key, and surrogate key?
Primary Key: A column in a table whose values uniquely identify the
rows in the table. A primary key value cannot be NULL.
2.It can contain Null Value
2. It can contain Null Value
a.direct method (skips dbcache, no redo generation)
b. conventional method (just opposite of direct load)
How to find how many database reside in Oracle server in query?
select count(*) from v$database;
What spfile/init.ora file parameter exists to force the CBO to make the execution path of a given statement use an index, even if the index scan may appear to be calculated as more costly?
CBO (Cost Based Optimizer): Generates an execution plan for a SQL statement
Optimizer_index_cost_adj parameter can be set to help CBO to decide an
execution plan, which affects the speed of SQL query. We can also make
necessary changes to the following parameters to effect CBO performance:
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