Oracle FAQs Questions with Answers # 4

What is Privilege Auditing?

Privilege auditing is the auditing of the use of powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects.

What is Object Auditing?

Object auditing is the auditing of accesses to specific schema objects without regard to user.

What is Auditing?

Monitoring of user access to aid in the investigation of database use.

How does one see the uptime for a database? (for DBA)

Look at the following SQL query:

SELECT to_char (startup_time,'DD-MON-YYYY HH24: MI: SS') "DB Startup Time"
FROM sys.v_$instance;
Marco Bergman provided the following alternative solution:
SELECT to_char (logon_time,'Dy dd Mon HH24: MI: SS') "DB Startup Time"
FROM sys.v_$session
WHERE Sid=1 /* this is pmon */
Users still running on Oracle 7 can try one of the following queries:
Column STARTED format a18 head 'STARTUP TIME'
to_date (JUL.VALUE, 'J')
|| to_char (floor (SEC.VALUE/3600), '09')
|| ':'
-- || Substr (to_char (mod (SEC.VALUE/60, 60), '09'), 2, 2)
|| Substr (to_char (floor (mod (SEC.VALUE/60, 60)), '09'), 2, 2)
|| '.'
|| Substr (to_char (mod (SEC.VALUE, 60), '09'), 2, 2) STARTED
Where JUL.KEY like '%JULIAN%'
and SEC.KEY like '%SECOND%';
Select to_date (JUL.VALUE, 'J')
|| to_char (to_date (SEC.VALUE, 'SSSSS'), ' HH24:MI:SS') STARTED
where JUL.KEY like '%JULIAN%'
and SEC.KEY like '%SECOND%';
select to_char (to_date (JUL.VALUE, 'J') + (SEC.VALUE/86400), -Return a DATE
where JUL.KEY like '%JULIAN%'
and SEC.KEY like '%SECOND%';

Where are my TEMPFILES, I don't see them in V$DATAFILE or DBA_DATA_FILE? (for DBA) 

Tempfiles, unlike normal datafiles, are not listed in v$datafile or dba_data_files. Instead query v$tempfile or dba_temp_files:
SELECT * FROM v$tempfile;
SELECT * FROM dba_temp_files;

How do I find used/free space in a TEMPORARY tablespace? (for DBA)

Unlike normal tablespaces, true temporary tablespace information is not listed in DBA_FREE_SPACE. Instead use the V$TEMP_SPACE_HEADER view:

SELECT tablespace_name, SUM (bytes used), SUM (bytes free)
FROM V$temp_space_header
GROUP BY tablespace_name;

What is a profile?

Each database user is assigned a Profile that specifies limitations on various system resources available to the user.

How will you enforce security using stored procedures?

Don't grant user access directly to tables within the application. Instead grant the ability to access the procedures that access the tables. When procedure executed it will execute the privilege of procedures owner. Users cannot access tables except via the procedure.

How can one see who is using a temporary segment? (for DBA)

For every user using temporary space, there is an entry in SYS.V$_LOCK with type 'TS'.

All temporary segments are named 'ffff.bbbb' where 'ffff' is the file it is in and 'bbbb' is first block of the segment. If your temporary tablespace is set to TEMPORARY, all sorts are done in one large temporary segment. For usage stats, see SYS.V_$SORT_SEGMENT

From Oracle 8.0, one can just query SYS.v$sort_usage. Look at these examples:

select s.username, u."USER", u.tablespace, u.contents, u.extents, u.blocks
from sys.v_$session s, sys.v_$sort_usage u
where s.addr = u.session_addr
select s.osuser, s.process, s.username, s.serial#,
Sum (u.blocks)*vp.value/1024 sort_size
from sys.v_$session s, sys.v_$sort_usage u, sys.v_$parameter VP
where s.saddr = u.session_addr
and = 'db_block_size'
and s.osuser like '&1'
group by s.osuser, s.process, s.username, s.serial#, vp.value

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